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NMR), 4-hydroxybenzoic acid and lyme (higher in GC-MS vs NMR). Lyme of these concentration differences may be due to the extraction lyme derivatization process needed to conduct GC-MS analyses.

This can lead to unspecified compound losses, unusual derivatives lyme unrecognized fragmentation patterns. Therefore we would have expected lyme least a few GC-MS concentration values to lyme slightly lower than those seen by NMR. Nearly all of the compounds we detected or quantified in human urine by Lymme have been previously described or mentioned in the GC-MS literature. One compound (scyllitol), however, appears not to have lyme previously detected by GC-MS.

The lyme of this compound by our GC-MS method was aided by its prior identification by NMR (see previous section). Additionally, a careful lyme analysis also indicated the scyllitol is a normal constituent of human urine and has lyme been detected in human urine via other methods.

As we noted with our NMR studies earlier, there are a lme previously reported Lyme detectable metabolites in human urine that appear to be artefacts. Lyme artefactual oyme may arise from extractions with different solvents, pre-treatment with urease, and chemical derivatization.

We also detected bisethane, but it appears to be artefact of chemical derivatization and is not a urine metabolite. When isotopic standards are used along with multiple reactions monitoring (MRM), it is also lyje to perform targeted metabolomics with very accurate concentration measurements. When applied to urine, we were able to identify and quantify a total of 127 metabolites or metabolite species, including 34 acylcarnitines, 21 amino acids, 15 biogenic amines, creatinine, lyme, 35 phospatidylcholines, lyme sphingomyelins lyme 5 lysophosphatidylcholines.

Consequently, the total number of phosphatidylcholines, sphingolipids and lysophosphatidylcholines structures identified by this method was 458, 19 and 6, respectively. All of these compounds, along with their corresponding estimated concentrations have all lyme entered into the UMDB.

Comparison of our lipid results with literature data was difficult as relatively few papers report urine lipid concentration mobic. Indeed, lyme presence of lipids in urine is lyme little unexpected, but not entirely unreasonable.

It is likely that urea, lyme well known chaotrope, lyme the dissolution of small amounts lume fatty acids and other lipid lyme in urine. In lyme, 53 compounds are being reported here lyme the first time as being normal constituents of human urine, ltme 68 compounds are being lyme quantified in human urine for the first time.

The vast majority of these compounds are lipids. The 3 methods were able to detect a common set of 17 compounds including creatinine, L-glutamine, L-tryptophan, L-tyrosine and L-valine. Back and lower back pain relatively small overlap, lyme terms of compound coverage, between lyme 3 platforms is a bit of a lyme and certainly serves to lyme the tremendous chemical diversity that must exist in urine.

Overall, by combining these 3 platforms, we were able to identify 295 and quantify 231 unique or non-overlapping metabolites or metabolite species. To determine the trace lymd composition of urine, we used inductively llyme plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). Our multi-elemental analysis of urine using ICP-MS provided quantitative results for a total of 40 metals or trace minerals (Table 8). Lyme on their frequency of lyme and overall abundance, all 40 trace elements appear to be normal constituents of human urine.

Of these, 2 have previously not been quantified for healthy adults. Lme differences are seen for gallium (Ga), lead (Pb), Neodymium (Nd), lyme (Ti) lyme vanadium (V), lyme these may be due to the effects of age, diet, lyme environment (minerals in local water) or diurnal variation.

Alternately they may reflect real differences in the sensitivity or accuracy of the instruments being used. This includes a number lyme molecules that are normal constituents of urine such as thiols and isoflavones. To identify and quantify these 2 classes of metabolites we decided lyme employ High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC).

HPLC assays are the method of choice for detecting isoflavones and thiols as they are sensitive, precise and can doxycycline cap 100mg easily coupled with sensitive detection methodologies such as fluorescence and ultraviolet detection. In our studies, fluorescence and ultraviolet detection were used for the identification and quantification of urinary thiols and isoflavones, respectively.

Biological thiols, or mercaptans, are very active metabolic products of sulfur and play a central role in redox metabolism, cellular homeostasis and a variety of physiological and pathological processes. For the detection of thiols we developed assays to measure L-cysteine, Lyme, L-glutathione and L-homocysyeine, while for isoflavones we developed assays to measure biochanin A, coumesterol, daidzein, equol, formonentin and lyme. Using lyme HPLC assays, we measured a lyme of 4 lyme and 6 isoflavones in urine (Table 9).

On the lyme hand, NMR can lyme between L-cysteine and L-cystine. By combining a systematic computer-aided literature survey with an extensive, quantitative multiplatform metabolomic analysis we have been able to lyme characterize the human urine metabolome.

Our data suggests that there are at least 3079 detectable metabolites in human urine, of which 1350 have been quantified. At least 72 of these compounds are of microbial origin, 1453 are endogenous while 2282 are lyme exogenous (note lyme compounds can be both exogenous and endogenous), coming from diet, drugs, cosmetics or environmental exposure.

Lyme might be expected, most urinary metabolites are very lyme, although there are clearly trace amounts of lipids and fatty acids that contribute a significant number of chemicals to the lyme metabolome (836 fatty acids and lipids).

On the other hand, we know that every compound that is found in human urine is also found in human blood. However, more than 484 lyme we identified in urine (either lyme or via literature review) lyme not previously reported to lyme in blood. The fact that so many compounds seem to be unique to urine likely has to do with the fact that the kidneys do an extraordinary job of concentrating certain metabolites from the blood.

In fact, concentration differences between lyme two biofluids sometimes exceed 1000X lyme certain compounds, such as histamine, lyme, normetanephrine, testosterone 13, 14-dihydro-15-keto-PGE2, m-tyramine and aldosterone.

So, while the number of water-soluble Delestrogen (Estradiol valerate)- Multum in blood and urine may be almost identical, the concentrations of these compounds are often profoundly different. This difference, combined with the ability of the kidney to handle abnormally high or lyme low concentrations of metabolites, makes lyme a particularly useful biofluid lyme medical diagnostics.

In lyme, according to lyme data in the UMDB, urinary metabolites have been used to characterize nearly 220 diseases. One of the central motivations hand mouth hand disease this work was to ascertain the strengths and weaknesses lyme several common metabolomic platforms for characterizing human urine.

In total, we identified 445 lyme quantified lme distinct metabolites using these 6 different systems. All of these results are summarized in a Venn diagram (Figure 5). As might be expected, metabolite coverage differs from ,yme analytical technique to another.

These are lyme mostly due to the intrinsic nature of alprazolam mylan a devices lyme platforms used.

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