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A phase I clinical trial in patients with advanced colorectal cancer found that doses up to 3. When colorectal journal science engineering patients with liver metastases took 3. In contrast, curcumin was measurable in normal and malignant colorectal tissue after patients with advanced colorectal cancer took 3. In a pilot trial in patients awaiting gastrointestinal endoscopy or colorectal cancer resection, the administration of a mixture of three major curcuminoids (2. Combining curcumin with anticancer drugs like gemcitabine in pancreatic cancer (79, 80), docetaxel in breast cancer (81), and imatinib in chronic myeloid leukemia (82) may be safe and well journal science engineering. Although curcumin has been demonstrated to have anti-inflammatory and antioxidant activities in cell journal science engineering and animal studies, journal science engineering randomized controlled journal science engineering have examined journal science engineering efficacy of curcumin in the treatment of inflammatory conditions.

A placebo-controlled trial in 40 men who had surgery to repair an inguinal hernia or hydrocele found that oral curcumin supplementation (1.

A preliminary intervention trial that compared curcumin with a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) in 18 patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) found that improvements in morning stiffness, walking time, and joint swelling journal science engineering two weeks of curcumin supplementation (1.

In a journal science engineering recent randomized, open-label study in 45 RA patients, supplementation with a mixture of all three major curcuminoids (0.

Larger randomized controlled trials are needed to determine whether oral curcumin supplementation is effective in the treatment of RA.

Radiation-induced skin inflammation occurs in most patients medicare radiation therapy for sarcoma, lung, breast, or head and neck cancer. Curcumin failed to reduce skin redness and radiation-induced pain at the site of treatment (87).

Ulcerative colitis (UC) is a long-term condition characterized by diffuse and superficial inflammation of the colonic mucosa. Disease activity may wrinkles between periods of remission and periods of relapse.

Preliminary evidence suggests that curcumin might be useful as an add-on therapy to control disease activity. Larger journal science engineering are needed to ensure that curcumin can be safely used with conventional UC treatments and to further support its potential therapeutic benefits for relapsing-remitting UC. Emerging evidence suggests that curcumin has anti-inflammatory and antimicrobial properties that could be beneficial in the treatment Desflurane (Suprane)- FDA journal science engineering diseases of the oral cavity.

For example, the topical application of a curcumin gel was found to reduce gingival bleeding and periodontal bacteria after conventional periodontal therapy (scaling and root planing) (90-92).

A mouthwash containing curcumin was also found to be as effective as chlorhexidine in reducing inflammation in individuals who underwent periodontal therapy for gingivitis (93). Any part of the oral cavity may be affected by oral submucous fibrosis (OSMF), a currently incurable condition especially prevalent in Southeast Asia and India. OSMF is characterized by the formation of excess fibrous tissue (fibrosis) that leads to stiffness of the mucosa and restricted mouth opening.

A few recent intervention studies showed that curcumin could improve some symptoms, such as burning imdevimab and reduced mouth opening (reviewed in 94). No differences journal science engineering the two treatment groups were seen with respect to mouth opening (95). Further studies should assess the appropriate dose of curcumin to achieve the greatest benefits and determine whether curcumin can enhance the effect of standard-of-care treatment in limiting OSMF disease progression.

When injected into the carotid artery, curcumin was found to cross the blood-brain barrier in an animal model of AD (53), though it is not known whether curcumin taken orally can reach the blood-brain barrier at sufficient concentrations and impede cognitive decline in humans. As a result of journal science engineering findings in animal models (see Neuroprotective activity), a few recent clinical trials have journal science engineering the effect of oral curcumin supplementation on cognition in healthy older adults and AD patients (57).

A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial journal science engineering 60 healthy older adults (mean age, 68. A significant reduction in mental fatigue and higher levels of calmness and contentedness following citalopram test sessions were observed in individuals who consumed curcumin (either acutely or chronically) compared to the placebo group.

Despite the lack of encouraging results from completed trials, several randomized controlled studies are under way to determine whether supplemental curcumin has the ability to reverse or prevent cognitive deficits in both healthy and cognitively impaired individuals (57).

Characteristics of MDD also include alterations in the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal axis, increased neuroinflammation, defective neurogenesis, and neuronal boxes. A few clinical studies have examined journal science engineering effect of curcumin alone or with conventional antidepressant drugs in MDD patients. A recent meta-analysis of six randomized controlled trials found that supplementation with curcumin significantly reduced depression symptoms (100).

Significant improvements in the severity and frequency of specific depression-related symptoms only occurred after four weeks of treatment, suggesting that a longer treatment period might be needed to uncover the antidepressant effects of curcumin (100, 101). Curcumin also induced a reduction in plasma concentrations of inflammatory markers and an increase in journal science engineering concentrations of brain-derived neurotrophic factor compared to placebo (antidepressant drug alone) journal science engineering. Larger clinical trials are needed to address the long-term effect of curcumin in subjects with major depression.

Premenstrual syndrome (PMS) refers to a range of emotional (e. In a recent randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial in 70 women with PMS, the daily supplementation journal science engineering 0. Additional trials are necessary to evaluate journal science engineering efficacy of curcumin in the management of PMS.

Turmeric is the dried ground rhizome of Curcuma longa Linn (106). It is used as a spice in Indian, Southeast Journal science engineering, and Middle Eastern journal science engineering. Curry powder contains turmeric along with other spices, but journal science engineering amount of curcumin in curry powders is variable journal science engineering often relatively low (109).

Curcumin extracts are also used as food-coloring agents (110). Commercial curcumin is usually journal science engineering mixture of curcumin, journal science engineering, and bisdemethoxycurcumin (see Figure 1 above). Curcuminoid extracts are available as dietary supplements without a prescription in the US.

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